Family Law Glossary
A glossary of common family law-related terms. Please feel free to link to this page, wherever you wish to provide free information to the public.
Note that some of the more complex concepts have been simplified, for clarity.
For a summary of the law, see my Family Law Guide.
Click to go directly to the letter:
Abduction - See Child Abduction.
Access - Old term for contact (see Contact Order).
Acknowledgement of Service - Form to be completed by respondent to divorce proceedings, confirming that they have received the divorce papers.
Adjournment - When a hearing is suspended, usually to a later date. Sometimes a case may be 'adjourned generally with liberty to restore'. This mean that the case still exists, but no further hearing date will be fixed. A party may subsequently request the court to fix another hearing.
Adoption Agency - An organisation that works with prospective parents and children to assess, match, arrange and support adoptive placements. There are two kinds of adoption agency – local authority adoption agencies For children in their care), and independent/voluntary adoption agencies.
Adoption Order - An order giving parental responsibility for a child to approved adopters, made on their application to the court. The order severs the legal ties between a birth parent and the child, so that the adoptive parent(s) become the child's legal parent(s) throughout life.
Adultery - Defined as “consensual sexual intercourse between a married person and a person of the opposite sex, not being the other’s spouse”. Note that it is still adultery even if the husband and wife are living separately. One of the five ways of proving that the marriage had irretrievably broken down, for the purpose of divorce proceedings under the old (pre-6/4/22) system.
Affidavit - A document to which the writer swears (usually on a Bible) that the contents are true. Note that making a false statement in an affidavit amounts to perjury.
Ancillary Relief - Old term for financial remedies on divorce. See Financial Remedies.
Annulment - A decree by the court annulling a marriage. See Nullity.
Answer - A document that must be filed with the court by a Respondent who is defending divorce proceedings, setting out their response to the allegations contained in the Petition. See also Cross Petition.
Ante-nuptial Agreement - See Pre-nuptial Agreement.
Applicant - The party issuing an application to the court, such as divorce proceedings, an application for a Child Arrangements Order, or a Financial Remedies application.
Arbitration - A form of private dispute resolution in which the parties enter into an agreement under which they appoint a suitably qualified person (an “arbitrator”) to adjudicate a dispute and make an award that will be binding upon the parties. Can be used to resolve financial disputes and disputes concerning children. For further information, and to find an arbitrator, see here.
Attachment of Earnings - Method of enforcement of (usually) maintenance orders or child support, whereby the debtor’s employer is required to deduct a regular sum of money from the debtor’s earnings.
Bankruptcy Order - Order declaring a person bankrupt, and placing their financial affairs in the hands of a trustee in bankruptcy, who will seek to pay the bankrupt's creditors by selling their assets. If the bankrupt has a partner or children living with them the trustee cannot usually sell the bankrupt's home without their agreement for a year from the date of the bankruptcy order.
Bar Council - The body that represents barristers in England and Wales. For more information, see the Bar Council website.
Barder Event - An event that occurs after a financial remedies order is made which changes a fundamental aspect of the order, such that the order should be set aside.
Barring Order - Order that no application for a further children order may be made with respect to the child concerned by any person named in the order, without leave of the court. Also known as a s.91(14) order - see here.
Barrister - A specialist lawyer, who represents litigants in court and provides advice on complex legal matters. Barristers are usually instructed by solicitors, but may also be instructed directly by a member of the public.
Bar Standards Board ('BSB') - Regulates barristers in England and Wales. For more information, see the BSB website.
Beneficial Interest - See under Trust of Land.
Bigamy - Criminal offence of marrying someone while already married to another person.
Brussels II Regulation - Sets out the rules dealing with family law jurisdiction issues between EU member states.
Bundle - A set of documents prepared by a party, for use at a court hearing. Usually prepared by the party who made the application, and agreed by the other party.
CAFCASS - The Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service - looks after the interests of children involved in family proceedings. In child arrangements proceedings the court will normally order that a CAFCASS officer prepare a Welfare Report (see below). For more information about CAFCASS see their website, here.
Calderbank Offer - A proposal that is made 'without prejudice save as to costs', meaning that if the proposal is not beaten by the other party then the maker of the proposal can show the proposal to the court and request the court to order the other party to pay their costs from the date of the offer, on the basis that those costs would not have been incurred if the offer had been accepted. See also Without Prejudice, below.
Capitalisation (of maintenance) - Converting a maintenance order into a lump sum.
Care Order - An order placing a child in the care of a designated local authority.
Care Plan - Local authority plan showing how the child’s needs would be met in care, including their health, education and contact with family members. Known as a care and support plan in Wales.
Cash Equivalent Transfer Value ('CETV') - A means of valuing a pension, required by the court in any financial remedy proceedings where a party has a pension. The amount that could be transferred out of that pension fund into another. Note that the CETV is not always the best way to value a pension - expert advice should always be sought.
Charging Order - Used to enforce payment of a debt. Secures the debt against the debtor's home, or other property they own. The creditor can then apply for an order that the property be sold.
Child Abduction - When a person takes or sends a child under 16 out of the UK without the permission of those with Parental Responsibility or permission from the court. May be a criminal offence.
Child Arrangements Order - Order setting out with whom the child should live, and if with only one parent, what contact the child should have with the other parent. See also Contact Order. If you wish to apply for a Child Arrangements Order you can do so online, here.
Child Arrangements Programme ('CAP') - A set of court rules that apply where a dispute arises between separated parents and/or families about arrangements concerning children. The CAP can be found here.
Child Maintenance Service ('CMS') - Government agency for parents who have not been able to make a private arrangement for paying child maintenance (see Child Support).
Child Protection Conference - A meeting between family members, the child (where appropriate), and professionals involved with the family about a child’s future safety, health and development.
Child Protection Plan - Plan drawn up at a child protection conference to ensure the child is safe from harm and prevent them from suffering further harm; to promote the child’s health and development; and to support the family and wider family members to safeguard and promote the welfare of their child, provided it is in the best interests of the child.
Child Protection Register - Confidential list of all children in the local area who have been identified as being at risk of significant harm.
Children Act 1989 - The primary statute setting out the law in relation to private and public law children matters. Can be found here.
Children’s Guardian - Represents the rights and interests of the child in care proceedings.
Child Support - Also known as child maintenance, child support is a regular payment to the parent with whom the child(ren) is/are living (the Person With Care) from the other parent (the Non-Resident Parent). It is calculated in accordance with a formula. You can calculate your child maintenance here.
Circuit judge - Judge who sits in the Crown and County Courts within their particular region. Rank below High Court judges but above District judges.
Civil Partnership - A legal relationship between two people, formed when they register as civil partners of each other. Originally intended only for same-sex couples, civil partnership is also now available for opposite-sex couples. For a table setting out the differences between marriage and civil partnership, see here.
Clean Break Order- A financial remedies order dismissing all, or all further, claims of a financial nature by either party against the other, including maintenance claims, so that thereafter neither party can apply to the court for any further financial orders against the other.
Cohabitation Agreement - A written agreement entered into by a cohabiting couple, setting out how their assets should be divided in the event that they separate.
Cohabitation Rights - The concept of giving limited rights to cohabitants to make financial claims against one another on relationship breakdown. No such rights currently exist under English law, but the Law Commission recommended the introduction of a scheme of rights for cohabitants in 2007 - see here. The Government did not take forward the recommendation.
Common Law Marriage - The erroneous idea that a cohabiting couple attain the status of marriage, and the rights that go with it, simply by living together for a certain length of time. They don’t. See also Cohabitation Rights.
Consent Order - A court order made with the agreement of both parties. Usually refers to an agreed financial remedies order (see also Statement of Information). Note that the order must still be approved by the court, which is not obliged to approve it merely because the parties agree.
Collaborative Law - A form of alternate dispute resolution where specially trained lawyers acting for each party endeavour to resolve cases via meetings.
Collect and Pay - A legally binding child maintenance arrangement set up by the CMS. The CMS calculates the amount of maintenance, then collects the payment from the Paying Parent and pays it to the Receiving Parent.
Conditional Order - The order stating that the applicant is entitled to the divorce.
Constructive Trust - A trust of land imposed by the court where the court finds that it was the common intention of the parties to share the beneficial interest in the property, and that the party asserting a claim to a beneficial interest has acted to his or her detriment in reliance on that common intention. See also Trust of Land.
Contact Centre - A neutral place where children of separated families can enjoy contact with their non-resident parents and sometimes other family members. Often used by courts as a place to re-establish contact between a child and a parent. You can find a contact centre here.
Contact Order - An order requiring the person with whom a child lives, or is to live, to allow the child to visit or to stay with the person named in the order, or to allow such other contact between the child and that person (e.g. telephone/Skype contact) as the court specifies. Now comes under 'Child Arrangements Order'.
Contempt of Court - Occurs when a person disobeys or ignores a court order. Punishable by a fine, or imprisonment.
Co-Respondent - The person named by the Petitioner as having committed adultery with the Respondent. The Co-Respondent is a party to the divorce proceedings.
Cross Petition - A document filed by a Respondent who wishes to defend the divorce and cross-petition, alleging that the breakdown of the marriage was due to a different reason to that alleged by the Petitioner in the Petition. Usually combined with an Answer – see above.
Custody - Very old term for with whom the child should live. No longer in use. See 'Child Arrangements Order'.
Decree Absolute - The order finalising the divorce. Now known as the Final Order.
Decree Nisi - The order stating that the Petitioner (or the Respondent, in the case of a divorce proceeding on a cross petition) is entitled to the divorce. Now known as a Conditional Order.
Deprivation of Liberty - Taking a person's freedom away. In a family law context this may involve the placement of looked-after children in secure accommodation - see section 25 of the Children Act 1989.
Desertion - Separation without consent or good reason, and where the deserting spouse has no intention of returning.
Directions - Orders of the court, usually setting out how the case will proceed.
Direct Pay - A legally binding child maintenance arrangement set up by the CMS, where the CMS calculates the amount of maintenance that should be paid and parents make their own arrangements for payments.
District judge - Full-time judges who deal with the majority of cases in the county courts. District judges (Magistrates’ courts) are full-time members of the judiciary who hear cases in magistrates’ courts, usually dealing with the longer and more complex matters.
Divorce - The process of dissolving a marriage, as against a civil partnership, for which the process is called 'dissolution'. If you wish to issue divorce proceedings you can do so online, here.
Divorce Centre - A regional centre where divorces are processed. Note that applications within the proceedings, such as for a financial remedies order, are still dealt with by the local court. Find your nearest Divorce Centre here. Note that since the 13th of September 2021 all divorce applications must be made online, and will be dealt with by the Bury St Edmunds Regional Divorce Centre.
DNA Test - Scientific test, usually used to determine paternity of a child.
Domestic Abuse - An incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive, threatening, degrading and violent behaviour, including sexual violence, in the majority of cases by a partner or ex-partner, but also by a family member or carer. For the statutory definition, see s.1 Domestic Abuse Act 2021. If you are a victim of abuse you can find help via the National Domestic Abuse Helpline.
Domicile - The country in which you live, or would be living if you were not (temporarily) living where you are currently - i.e. the country to which you intend to return, having not emigrated on a permanent basis.
Emergency Protection Order ('EPO') - An urgent order authorising the removal of a child from its parents for up to eight days.
Equitable Interest - See under Trust of Land.
Estoppel - Also known as 'proprietary estoppel'. The principle that if party A, under an expectation created or encouraged by party B that A shall have a certain interest in land, and then on the faith of that expectation and with the knowledge of B and without objection by him, acts to his detriment in connection with the land, a court will compel B to give effect to the expectation. See also Trust of Land.
Fact-finding hearing - A hearing during which the court will adjudicate as to the truth of factual allegations made by either party.
Family Assistance order - An order of the court which allows Cafcass or local authorities to provide social-work support to help parties to establish contact arrangements which might otherwise fail.
Family-based arrangement - A child maintenance arrangement agreed between the parents.
Family Court - Deals with all family matters, alongside the Family Division of the High Court. For more information, see here.
Family Court Adviser ('FCA') - Social worker who works for Cafcass. Advises the court upon the best outcome for children.
Family Drug and Alcohol Court (‘FDAC’) - Specialist court used in certain care proceedings, which aims to help parents stabilise/stop using drugs/alcohol and, where possible, to keep families together. For more information, see here.
Family Procedure Rules ('FPA') - The rules governing family court proceedings. Can be found here.
Final Order - Final divorce order, concluding the divorce.
Financial Dispute Resolution hearing ('FDR') - A hearing within an application for financial remedies, at which the parties should use their best endeavours to settle the matter by agreement, with the help of the court.
Financial Remedies - The financial/property settlement in connection with divorce proceedings. See also Section 25 Factors, for the matters that the court takes into account when deciding a financial remedies application.
Financial Remedies Court - Specialist courts that deal with financial remedy applications. For more information, see here.
First Directions Appointment ('FDA') - The first court hearing in financial remedy proceedings. Used by the court to give directions as to the future conduct of the proceedings, including the filing of evidence and further hearings.
First Hearing Dispute Resolution Appointment ('FHDRA') - The first hearing in an application for a Child Arrangements Order, at which the court will encourage the parties to resolve the matter by agreement.
Form A - Form used to start financial remedy proceedings.
Form C100 - Application for a child arrangements, prohibited steps, specific issue order, or to vary or discharge or ask permission to make such an order. For an example, see here.
Form C1A - Supplemental form to go with Form C100, when making or responding to allegations of harm and domestic violence. For an example, see here.
Form E Financial Statement - A form setting out details of the means (income, outgoings, and capital assets) of a party. Each party is required to complete a Form E in specified financial remedy proceedings. For an example, see here. Used in financial remedy applications on divorce, civil partnership dissolution, judicial separation, annulment and applications for financial relief after an overseas divorce.
Form E1 - Financial statement used in all other financial remedy proceedings. For an example, see here.
Form E2 - Financial statement used on application for a variation of an order for a financial remedy. For an example, see here.
Foster Parent - A person who officially take a child into their family for a period of time, without becoming the child's legal parents.
Freezing Injunction - An order which prevents or sets aside the disposal of any property or asset.
Gatekeeper - The nominated District Judge and/or nominated Legal Adviser responsible for deciding which level of judge in the family court should initially deal with an application, acting alone or jointly.
Get - A document in Jewish religious law which effects a divorce between a Jewish couple.
Guardian - See Children's Guardian, above.
Habitual Residence - The country in which you habitually (as against temporarily) reside.
Hague Convention - Usually refers to the Hague Convention on Child Abduction 1980 (see here), but may also refer to the Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in Respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children 1996 (see here).
Hair Strand Test - Test carried out on hair sample, used to determine drug/alcohol abuse.
Harm - Used with reference to a child subject to care/supervision proceedings means ill treatment or damage to the health and development of the child, including, for example, damage suffered from seeing or hearing the ill treatment of another.
Hybrid Hearing - A court hearing in which some of the parties take part remotely (see Remote Hearing), and some physically attend the court.
IDVA - Independent Domestic Violence Advisors - trained specialists who act as a single point of contact to help victims of domestic abuse who are at the most risk of serious injury or death to become safe, ensuring their voice is heard by statutory agencies.
Indirect contact - Contact between a parent and child that does not include direct, face to face, contact. Can be by letter, telephone call, etc.
Injunction - An order requiring a party to do, or to refrain from doing, certain acts. In family law, most commonly refers to domestic abuse orders – see Non-molestation order and Occupation order.
Interim Care Order ('ICO') - Order placing a child temporarily under the care or supervision of the local authority whilst care proceedings are ongoing.
Interim maintenance - A temporary maintenance order, pending the making of a final order.
Irretrievable Breakdown (of marriage) - The ground for divorce, under the present divorce system. Must be proved by proving adultery, unreasonable behaviour, two years’ desertion, two years’ separation with the other party’s consent, or five years’ separation.
Joint tenancy - Form of joint ownership of property, whereby each party has equal rights to the whole property, and the property automatically passes to the other owners if one party dies. Usual form of joint ownership used by married couples. See also Tenancy in common. A joint tenancy can be changed into a tenancy in common, by a process known as 'severing the joint tenancy'.
Judicial Separation - A decree by the court that the parties to a marriage are 'judicially separated'. In practice this means little of itself, but it does entitle the parties to apply for a financial remedies order.
Judgment summons - Where a debtor is in breach of a maintenance or lump sum order the court can commit them to prison for contempt of court if the court is satisfied that the debtor has, or has had, since the date of the order the means to pay and has refused or neglected, or refuses or neglects, to pay.
Jurisdiction - Before a court can deal with a matter, it must have jurisdiction, i.e. the power to deal with the matter. Particularly relevant in cases with an international element, when the party issuing the proceedings must prove that the English court has jurisdiction, rather than (or as well as) a foreign court.
Legal Aid Agency ('LAA') - The body responsible for providing public funding for legal representation.
Law Society of England and Wales - The organisation that represents solicitors and their interests in England and Wales. For more information, see the Law Society website.
Leading question - A question that suggests a particular answer. A lawyer is not allowed to ask leading questions of their own witnesses.
Leave - Another word for 'permission'.
Legal Aid - Helps pay for legal advice, mediation or representation in court. Not available for most private law family matters (i.e. cases not involving a local authority), but you can find out if you are eligible here.
Legal Ombudsman - Investigates complaints against legal service providers, including solicitors and barristers. For more information, see the Legal Ombudsman website.
Legal Services Payment Order ('LSPO') - An order or orders requiring one party to the marriage to pay to the other (“the applicant”) an amount for the purpose of enabling the applicant to obtain legal services for the purposes of the proceedings.
Litigant in person ('LiP') - Someone who is conducting their court proceedings without the assistance of a lawyer.
Lucas Direction - Judicial direction that: “if a court concludes that a witness has lied about a matter, it does not follow that he has lied about everything. A witness may lie for many reasons, for example out of shame, humiliation, misplaced loyalty, panic, fear, distress, confusion and emotional pressure”.
Lump Sum Order - An order requiring one party to pay to the other a lump sum of money, whether in one go or by instalments.
Magistrate - Volunteer who hears cases in a magistrates’ court.
Matrimonial Causes Act 1973 - The primary statute setting out the law in relation to divorce, nullity and other matrimonial suits, including financial remedy claims within those suits. Can be found here.
Maintenance Calculation - Term used in child support legislation, referring to the calculation of child support maintenance under the formula set out in the legislation. See Child Support.
Maintenance Pending Suit - A temporary maintenance order, to last until a final financial remedies order has been made.
Marital Acquest - Term referring to the assets acquired during the marriage or civil partnership. See also Matrimonial Assets.
Matrimonial Assets (or Matrimonial Property) - Assets of the marriage that fall to be divided between the parties on divorce, as against assets that will remain the property of the owning party. Usually refers to assets acquired during the marriage, through the joint efforts of the parties to the marriage.
McKenzie Friend - A person allowed by the court to assist an unrepresented person in court. For guidance regarding McKenzie Friends, see here.
Mediation - A process whereby a trained mediator will help a divorcing or separating couple agree arrangements for children and/or a financial/property settlement. Entering into mediation is purely voluntary. To find a mediator near you, go here.
Mesher Order - Order postponing the sale of the former matrimonial home until the children reach a certain age.
MIAM (Mediation Information and Assessment Meeting) - A first meeting with a mediator, to explain how mediation works, and to assess whether the case is suitable for mediation. Before making an application to court all applicants must first attend a MIAM, unless they are exempt.
No-fault divorce - A divorce system that does not require one party to attribute blame for the breakdown of the marriage to the other party. A system of no-fault divorce is to be introduced in England and Wales, expected in Autumn 2021.
Non-molestation Order - A court order prohibiting one party from molesting, harassing or pestering the other party.
Non-Resident Parent ('NRP') - Term used in child support legislation, to refer to the parent liable to pay child support maintenance. A parent is a NRP if they are not living in the same household as the child and the child has their home with a person who is, in relation to them, a Person With Care.
No Order Principle - The principle that where a court is considering whether or not to make one or more orders under the Children Act 1989 with respect to a child, it shall not make the order or any of the orders unless it considers that doing so would be better for the child than making no order at all.
Nuffield Family Justice Observatory - "The Nuffield Family Justice Observatory exists to find and fill the gaps in our understanding of the family justice system, highlight the areas where change will have the biggest impact, and foster collaboration to make that change happen." For further information, see their website.
Nullity - A decree by the court annulling a marriage, on the grounds that it is either void or voidable. A void marriage, for example where the parties are within the prohibited degrees of relationship, has the effect of treating the marriage as having never taken place. A voidable marriage, for example because the marriage was never consummated, is valid unless and until a decree of nullity is granted.
Occupation Order - An order that can, amongst other things, require a party to vacate or not to return to the matrimonial home (or, in the case of an unmarried couple, the home in which they both lived). See also Ouster Order.
Offsetting - An arrangement whereby one party retains or receives a larger share of one asset, in return for the other party retaining another asset. Usually used in connection with pensions, whereby, for example, a wife may have a larger share of the former matrimonial home, in return for the husband retaining his pension.
Oral Evidence - Evidence given orally in court.
Ouster Order - Name previously given to an Occupation Order requiring a party to vacate the home.
PAMS Assessment - Parent Assessment Manual assessment - a practical-based assessment undertaken when a parent or carer has a degree of learning need. The assessment focuses on a parent's practical capabilities to meet the needs of the child.
Parental Alienation - A term that has no fixed definition, although Cafcass use the term 'alienating behaviours', which it defines as: "circumstances where there is an ongoing pattern of negative attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of one parent (or carer) that have the potential or expressed intent to undermine or obstruct the child’s relationship with the other parent." For more information, see here.
Parental Order - Gives full legal parenthood and parental responsibility to the intended parents following a surrogacy arrangement.
Parental Responsibility - Defined as "all the rights, duties, powers, responsibilities and authority which by law a parent of a child has in relation to the child and his property". Always acquired by the mother. Shared by both parents where they are married, or where the father has acquired it, for example by agreement or court order.
Parenting Plan - A written plan worked out between parents after they separate, covering the practical issues of parenting. For further information, see here.
Part-heard - Means a hearing which has started but which has not been finished within the day, and then continues on another day.
Party - Someone involved in the court proceedings - either the person who has made the application, or the person(s) against whom the application has been made.
Party Cited - A non-spouse who is made party to the divorce proceedings because the respondent alleges that they have committed adultery with the Petitioner.
Periodical payments - Another term for maintenance.
Penal Notice - A warning attached to a court order that if the person against whom the order is made disobeys the court’s order, they may be held in contempt of court and punished by a fine, imprisonment, confiscation of assets or other punishment under the law.
Pension Attachment Order - An order stating that one party will receive part of the other party’s pension, when the other party receives it.
Pension Inquiry Form (Form P) - Form setting out the information needed when a pension sharing order or a pension attachment order may be made. For an example, see here.
Pension Sharing Order - An order transferring all or part of one party’s pension into a pension belonging to the other party.
Person With Care ('PWC') - Term used in child support legislation, to refer to the parent with whom the child lives. Also referred to as the 'Parent With Care'.
Petitioner - The party who issues the divorce proceedings. The other party will be the ‘Respondent’.
Placement Order - Order made in care proceedings authorising the local authority to place a child with approved prospective adoptive parents.
Police Protection - Where the police have reasonable cause to believe that a child is at risk of significant harm they may remove the child from the parents. No child may be kept in police protection for more than 72 hours, and the police must notify the local authority as soon as is reasonably practicable after taking a child into police protection.
Post-nuptial Agreement - A written agreement entered into by a couple after getting married, setting out how their assets should be divided in the event of a divorce. Post-nuptial agreements are not binding upon the courts of England and Wales, but they will normally be upheld, unless the court considers that that would not be fair.
Power of Arrest - A power attached to an order that enables the police to arrest a person whom they have reasonable cause to suspect of being in breach of the order. A power of arrest may be attached to an Occupation Order.
Practice Direction - A document which sets out good practice in supporting the FPR (Family Procedure Rules) or other Rules (see above) and /or may contain provisions which could otherwise be contained in rules of court and have same effect as rules.
Practice Direction 12J ('PD12J') - Sets out what the court is required to do in any children case in which it is alleged or admitted, or there is other reason to believe, that the child or a party has experienced domestic abuse perpetrated by another party or that there is a risk of such abuse. PD12J can be found here.
Pre-nuptial Agreement - A written agreement entered into by a couple prior to getting married, setting out how their assets should be divided in the event of a divorce. Pre-nuptial agreements are not binding upon the courts of England and Wales, but they will normally be upheld, unless the court considers that that would not be fair.
Presumption of Parental Involvement - The presumption that the involvement of a parent in a child's life will further the child's welfare, unless the contrary is shown.
Primary Carer - The parent with whom the child or children spend the majority of their time after separation. See also Person With Care.
Private Law - Term used to refer to family proceedings, particularly children proceedings, that do not involve a local authority. See also Public Law.
Prohibited Steps Order - Defined as “an order that no step which could be taken by a parent in meeting his parental responsibility for a child, and which is of a kind specified in the order, shall be taken by any person without the consent of the court”, for example an order prohibiting a parent from taking any step that may result in the child being known by a new name.
Property Adjustment Order - An order adjusting the ownership of matrimonial property, for example transferring jointly owned property to one party.
Public Law - Term used to refer to children proceedings that involve a local authority, in particular care proceedings. See also Private Law.
Qualifying Child - Term used in child support legislation, to refer to the child for whom child support maintenance is to be paid. A child is a qualifying child if one or both of their parents is, in relation to them, a Non-Resident Parent.
Questionnaire - Document prepared in financial remedy proceedings, requesting further information and/or documentation from the other party. The court will determine which questions the other party must reply to.
Quickie Divorce - A term often used in the popular media, suggesting that there is a quicker divorce procedure available to certain couples, especially celebrities. There isn’t. All divorcing couples must follow the same procedure. The term probably originated from the fact that a divorce is much quicker if undefended.
Recital - Introductory part of a court order. Contains relevant matters that are not actually orders, such as background details and matters agreed between the parties.
Relate - Offers counselling services for every type of relationship nationwide. Provides advice on marriage, LGBT issues, divorce and parenting. For further information, see here.
Remote Hearing - A court hearing carried out via telephone or video, without the necessity for the parties or their lawyers to physically attend court. The use of remote hearings increased significantly, following the introduction of social distancing measures in response to the Covid-19 pandemic. See also Hybrid Hearing.
Residence Order - Old term for an order that the child or children reside with a particular person or persons, usually one of the parents (or both, in the case of shared residence). Replaced by Child Arrangements Order.
Resolution - Association of family lawyers whose members follow a Code of Practice that promotes a constructive approach to family issues and considers the needs of the whole family. For more information, and to find a Resolution member, see here.
Respondent - The party who did not issue the proceedings. Note that the Respondent to a financial remedies application could also be the Petitioner in the divorce proceedings.
Resulting Trust - A trust of land imposed by the court where the court finds that one party has made a direct financial contribution towards the purchase of a property registered in another party's name, and that contribution was not a gift. The trust grants the paying party an interest in the property. See also Trust of Land.
Roll of solicitors - A list of all admitted solicitors held by the Law Society of England and Wales
Safeguarding checks - Where an application is made for a child arrangements order the court will request CAFCASS to identify any issues relating to the safety or welfare of the children concerned. CAFCASS will carry out safeguarding checks with the police and local authority and, in most cases, undertake telephone risk identification interviews with the parents. CAFCASS will then provide the court with a letter, at least three days before the FHDRA, reporting on the outcome of the safeguarding checks.
School fees order - An order requiring a parent to pay some or all of their child’s school fees.
Scott schedule - Document setting out, in a numbered schedule or table, the allegations that are in dispute between the parties, for example allegations of domestic abuse. The court will adjudicate upon the allegations at a Fact-finding hearing (the schedule will include a blank column for the judge to fill in with their findings).
Section 7 Report - A welfare report (see below), prepared under section 7 of the Children Act 1989; the report will be on such matters relating to the welfare of that child as are required to be dealt with in the report; the report may be in writing or oral.
Section 8 Order - A Child Arrangements Order, Prohibited Steps Order, or Specific Issue Order (made under section 8 of the Children Act 1989).
Section 25 Factors - A list of factors that the court should take into account when deciding a financial remedies application, including the income, earning capacity, property and other financial resources which each of the parties to the marriage has or is likely to have in the foreseeable future; the needs of the parties; and the contributions which each of the parties has made or is likely in the foreseeable future to make to the welfare of the family. The full list can be found in section 25(2) of the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973, here. See also Sharing Principle, below.
Section 28(1A) bar - Direction by the court that a spouse in whose favour a maintenance order is made may not apply to the court for an extension of the duration of the order.
Section 37 Report - Where, in any family proceedings in which a question arises with respect to the welfare of any child, it appears to the court that it may be appropriate for a care or supervision order to be made with respect to him, the court may direct the appropriate authority to undertake an investigation of the child’s circumstances.
Separated Parents Information Programme ('SPIP') - A course which helps parents understand how to put their children first while they are separating, even though they may be in dispute with the child’s other parent or carer. The court may direct parents to attend a SPIP.
Separation Deed - A document setting out agreed arrangements, in particular financial arrangements, between a married couple, when they separate. Used in situations where the couple do not immediately intend to divorce.
Sharing Principle - The principle used by the court when considering division of assets on divorce, whereby, as a general guide, an equal division of assets between husband and wife should be departed from only if, and to the extent that, there is good reason for doing so, for example because the needs of one party are greater than the needs of the other. See also Section 25 Factors.
Solicitor - A lawyer who has been admitted as a solicitor by the SRA and whose name appears on the roll of solicitors. Solicitors take instructions from members of the public, provide legal advice, prepare documentation and represent clients at court. They may also instruct a barrister to represent the client.
Solicitors Regulation Authority ('SRA') - The body that regulates solicitors in England and Wales. Solicitors must follow the SRA Code of Conduct, and breaches of the Code may be reported to the SRA. For more information, see the SRA website.
Special Guardianship Order - An order appointing one or more individuals to be a child’s "special guardian" (or special guardians). Gives parental responsibility for the child, and the ability to make most decisions in relation to the child, to the special guardians, who will often be members of the child’s extended family. Often used as an alternative to an Adoption Order.
Specific Issue Order - Defined as “an order giving directions for the purpose of determining a specific question which has arisen, or which may arise, in connection with any aspect of parental responsibility for a child”, for example a dispute between the parents over their child’s schooling.
Statement of Information - Statement giving basic information regarding party's means, that must be filed with the court when applying for a consent order in relation to a financial remedy. For an example, see here.
Statement of Marriage Breakdown - Statement by the applicant(s) for a divorce, that the marriage has broken down irretrievably. The court dealing must take the statement to be conclusive evidence that the marriage has broken down irretrievably.
Supervision Order - An order placing a child under the supervision of a local authority. The child usually remains with the family, but a social worker will visit and monitor the family. Supervision orders usually last between six months and a year.
Supplemental Petition - A document setting out further allegations which occurred after the date of the original petition.
Surrogacy - When a woman (the 'surrogate') carries and gives birth to a baby for another person or couple.
Tenancy in common - Form of joint ownership of property, whereby each party can own different shares of the property (specified in the deeds), and the property does not automatically pass to the other owners if one party dies (the share of the party who dies will pass under their estate). Commonly used by unmarried partners. See also Joint tenancy.
Threshold Criteria (or simply 'Threshold') - The facts that the local authority have to prove if they want the court to make a care order or a supervision order, usually by showing that the child is suffering, or is likely to suffer, significant harm attributable to the care being given to the child not being what it would be reasonable to expect a parent to give to them. The Threshold is contained in section 31(2) of the Children Act, which can be found here.
TOLATA - Acronym for the Trusts of Land and Appointment of Trustees Act 1996. In a family law context the Act is most commonly used to resolve property disputes between cohabiting couples. A TOLATA claim may be used to request the court to determine shares in the property, and whether or not the property should be sold. See also Trust of Land.
Transparency - Refers to access by journalists and the public to, and the reporting of, information concerning proceedings in the Family Court.
Trust of Land - Arrangement whereby the true ownership of land differs from that stated on the deeds. The owner(s) stated on the deeds (the owners of the ‘legal estate’) are said to hold the property on trust for the true owners, who are said to hold an ‘equitable’, or ‘beneficial’, interest in the property. In a family law context trusts of land most commonly arise in cohabitation cases, where one party owns the legal estate to the property and the other party is said to have acquired an equitable interest in the property, for example because of contributions that they have made to the property. See also Constructive Trust, Resulting Trust, Estoppel, and TOLATA.
Undertaking - A binding promise to the court to do, or not to do, something.
Unreasonable Behaviour - Behaviour by one party such that the other party cannot reasonably be expected to live with them. One of the five ways of proving that the marriage had irretrievably broken down, for the purpose of divorce proceedings under the old (pre-6/4/22) system.
Variation - Changing the terms of a court order, for example the amount to be paid under a maintenance order.
Viability Assessment - An assessment undertaken with a 'connected person' such as relative or friend who wishes to be considered to care for a child that is known to them.
Void marriage and Voidable marriage - See under nullity.
Wardship - A High Court order making a child a ward of court, meaning that no important step can be taken in the child’s life without the permission of the court.
Welfare Checklist - A list of factors that the court must take into account when deciding whether to make an order relating to a child, including the ascertainable wishes of the child, the child's needs, the effect on the child of any change in their circumstances, and any harm that they have suffered or are at risk of suffering. The full list is set out in section 1(3) of the Children Act 1989, which can be found here.
Welfare Report - A report prepared for the court, usually by a CAFCASS officer, into the welfare of a child involved in child arrangements proceedings. The report will normally include a recommendation as to what order, or orders, if any, the court should make.
Without Prejudice - Words used in an offer of settlement to ensure that the offer cannot be shown to the court if it is not accepted. If the offer is accepted the protection of ‘without prejudice’ is gone. Note that ‘without prejudice’ proposals are not considered to be appropriate in proceedings relating to children.
Xydhias Agreement - An agreement between spouses setting out the general terms of financial arrangements on divorce, that will be upheld by the court despite not yet being incorporated into a court order.
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